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Historical Background and Introduction to the
Recent Work of the Loch Ness and Morar Project

Reproduced with the permission of the Scottish Naturalist
Copyright: May be used for private research. All other rights reserved



By ADRIAN J. SHINE

Loch Ness and Morar Project

JOHN MINSHULL

Loch Ness and Morar Project

and MARALYN SHINE

Loch Ness and Morar Project

Pioneer Work

It is now some ninety years since Sir John Murray and Laurence Pullar published the first part of their pioneer hydrographic survey of Loch Ness (Murray and Pullar, 1903-08), followed by their comprehensive account of all the important Scottish fresh-water lochs (Murray and Pullar, 1910).  Then E.R. Watson and James Wedderburn's discovery of internal seiches in Loch Ness (Watson, 1904; Wedderburn, 1907a and 1907b; Wedderburn and Watson, 1909) began a long tradition of physical limnology (e.g. Wedderburn, 1907b, 1911 and 1912) which was ultimately to attract other leading scientists, such as C.H. Mortimer (Mortimer, 1952 and 1955) and S.A. Thorpe (Thorpe, Hall and Crofts, 1972;  Thorpe, 1974 and 1988), to this fascinating body of water.

Nevertheless, apart from the pioneer work of the Bathymetrical Survey, the biology of the loch remained rather neglected until Dr. Peter Maitland's multi-disciplinary survey of 1977-80 (Maitland, 1981), which has remained the definitive background for further studies.

1993
This year (1993) also marks two other anniversaries.  It is now 125 years since the Inverness Courier (8th October 1868) first referred to the loch's unusual tradition, and sixty years since the same newspaper (Anon., 1933) coined the term 'Monster'.  This tradition has been blamed, possibly somewhat unjustly, for scientific reticence regarding the loch.  In fact, as the roll of distinguished scientists shows, this is hardly the case, but equally it remains to be explained why Britain's premier body of fresh-water has not received more attention.  Perhaps one reason has been the inadequacy of much freshwater sampling equipment when confronted with windy surface conditions and water depths of over 200 metres.

The Monster Tradition

On the other hand, although the Monster tradition may have attracted enthusiastic amateur naturalists but few professional zoologists, it did attract trained engineers, and with them some quite large-scale expeditions to provide the logistics for the novel methods of protracted acoustic and underwater camera monitoring (e.g. Campbell and Solomon, 1972; Mackal, 1976; Rines, Wyckoff, Edgerton and Klein, 1976; Rines, 1988).  It was from here that the Loch Ness and Morar Project's tradition of improvisation developed, and, as the general scientific possibilities became clear, so some marine equipment found its first freshwater use in Loch Ness (Note 1).

Finally, the opportunity afforded by the Caledonian Canal was exploited, as a collaboration with the Simrad Company and the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland (Shine and Martin, 1988); this saw larger vessels entering the loch, thus partly off-setting the hostile surface conditions.  None of this would have been possible without a considerable change in general scientific outlook and perspective.

The Parting of the Ways

In 1960 one of the earliest investigators, Dr. Peter Baker, was already attempting to assess the fish population by acoustics, and was speculating about the effects of the loch physics upon the horizontal transport of biomass (Baker and Westwood, 1960; Baker, 1962). However, events in the 1970s, leading to the naming of the Monster as Nessiteras rhombopteryx (Scott and Rines, 1975), severed any real connection between aquatic science and popular expectations (Witchell, 1975: 147-156; Witchell, 1989: 139-146).

The Project in the 1980s

The activities of the Loch Ness and Morar Project in the 1980s sought to revise these expectations, through the reintroduction of general scientific objectives, and in 1987 analysis of unusual sonar contacts culminated in 'Operation Deepscan' (Shine and Martin, 1988) and the slaying of the popular media Monster.

Since then, the Project has been given a headquarters at the loch-side by the Official Loch Ness Exhibition Centre, whose proprietor Mr. R.A. Bremner has also generously provided a laboratory, harbour facilities, and land for a field station.  This permanent presence has permitted the Project to invite and encourage trained scientific workers from all limnological disciplines to collaborate and take advantage of our field-work and equipment specially developed for deep-water research.

Ecos

 A 34-ft clinker-built motor cruiser was purchased in the autumn of 1989.  It was originally built in the 1930s as a mail boat for the Orkneys.  Renamed Ecos, it was renovated and specially adapted for freshwater research (Figure 1, 11K).  The vessel was selected as particularly suitable because of the open cockpit close to the waterline for easy recovery of equipment and samples.  It also has a flush deck giving the necessary space for the hand-hauling of over 100 km of ropes during sampling, trawling, dredging and coring over the last three years (Figure 2, 8K).  Internally, bench space was provided to mount the bulky instrumentation necessary, for example, for acoustic fish stock surveys.  Externally, an out-rigger system permits the rapid over-side deployment of heavy transducers, to port and starboard.

Fixed Station

A fixed station facility was constructed in mid-loch, consisting of a submerged two-point mooring laid in 200 m depth of water.  This involves 1.0 km of warp, and permits Ecos to maintain station without drift while accurate series of vertical samples are taken.

Over 14 tonnes of water have been raised from the station during continuous studies over the past three summers and two winters.  The mooring has also enabled instrumentation, such as thermistors and sediment traps, to be maintained and serviced in deep water.

Coring Equipment

The Project has designed and built its own gravity-coring apparatus for deep-water and for use from smaller vessels.  The wide bore (10.3 cm) was originally developed to collect the large volumes of sediment necessary to detect chemicals present at minute concentrations (Sanders, Jones and Shine, 1993).  However, the system has proved very effective for quantitative benthos studies (Martin, Shine and Duncan, 1993; Griffiths and Martin, 1993) as well as sediment mapping (Bennett and Shine, 1993).  Very satisfactory 3.0 m cores can be taken with this system.

Personnel

The authors provide a permanent loch-side presence to conduct field-work.  In London, David Martin acts as a scientific clearing house for materials destined for specialist workers elsewhere.  Each year, volunteers are recruited and logistics organised to support the various programmes.  These volunteers are mainly students, some in the course of B.Sc. dissertations, but other volunteers come from all walks of life.

Recent Increase in Research

During the past three years it is gratifying to report that forty collaborators have responded with research on many aspects of Loch Ness, including a continuous three-year multi-disciplinary plankton study by the University of Lancaster, to which the Project has contributed the field-work (see Appendix).  At least seventeen B.Sc., M.Sc., M.Phil. and Ph.D. dissertations and theses, wholly or partly devoted to the loch, have been completed or are in preparation (see Appendix), and the Project's Sediment Group is also being co-ordinated by the Environmental Change Research Centre at University College London.

During 1992 and 1993 a certain amount of material was presented at meetings of the Institute of Fisheries Management (Note 2), the Societas Internationalis Limnologae Theoreticae et Applicatatae (S.I.L.S.) in Barcelona (Note 3), and the British Ecological Society (Note 4); further papers and posters featured in the 50th meetings of both the Scottish (Note 5) and London (Note 6) Freshwater Groups.  Additional specialist publications will follow in due course, but clearly it is now time to place some collected observations on record in order to emphasise some aspects of recent work which are regarded as particularly interesting, and to pose a few questions.

Project Contributions

The place of Loch Ness in relation to the other major Scottish lochs has already been set out in detail by Maitland (1981).  In terms of richness and diversity, Loch Ness was found to be generally intermediate between the 'richest', Loch Awe and Loch Lomond, and the 'poorest', Loch Morar and Loch Shiel.  In the main, the Loch Ness and Morar Project has applied its energies to carrying out work complementary to several aspects of Dr. Maitland's studies.

Sediments

Following a hydrographic and seismic survey (Young and Shine, 1993), sediment studies have been conducted in detail and have produced answers to the questions of acidification, eutrophication and pollution (Jones, Rose and Appleby - Notes 4 and 5; Bennett and Shine, 1993; Jenkins, 1993a; Sanders, Jones and Shine, 1993).  Much additional work is being undertaken as longer cores are obtained.

The Littoral

The littoral of Loch Ness is a steeply sloping stony ribbon exposed to considerable wave action.  Examination of the sub-littoral macrophytes, by underwater television, confirms the low light penetration, the Isoetes swards of more transparent lochs, such as Morar, being replaced by strands of filamentous algae.  The chemistry of feeder streams has been examined by Jenkins (1993b).

The invertebrates of the littoral (<1.0 m) were extensively surveyed by Smith, Maitland, Young and Carr (1981).  The Project's attentions have therefore been restricted to sub-littoral invertebrate sampling, for comparison with the profundal.

The fish of the littoral are described by Shine, Kubecka, Martin and Duncan (1993).

The Profundal

In terms of basic species lists, the only significant gap in the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology's comprehensive survey (Maitland, 1981) was the profundal region, the size of which is very considerable in Loch Ness because of the loch's great mean depth (132 m).  The Project's contribution (Martin, Shine and Duncan, 1993) now fills this gap.

Ongoing work with a quantitative wide-bore coring technique is now defining community structures and densities in a way similar to that achieved for the ostracods (Griffiths and Martin, 1993).  In the future, the life history of some of the chironomids seems worth examination, since they contribute to the diet of profundal Charr as larvae and to that of pelagic Charr as pupae.  It is particularly important to follow the pattern of their emergence and behaviour in the pelagic at this time, when they are sometimes associated with acoustic scattering layers.

An interesting discovery during the profundal programme was a population of Charr ranging in size between 4.0 cm and 30 cm.  These are described by Shine, Kubecka, Martin and Duncan (1993).

The Pelagic

The pelagic zone has been the main area for the Loch Ness and Morar Project's contributions to Loch Ness research, because of its amenability to investigation by acoustic methods (Kubecka, Duncan and Butterworth, 1993; Shine, Martin and Marjoram, 1993).

Physical Characteristics of Loch Ness

The regular morphometry and orientation of Loch Ness, in line with the prevailing south-west wind, has produced a dynamic physical environment (Shine and Martin, 1988).  Powerful wind mixing often extends deep into the water column.  This, together with low light penetration and scarce nutrients, reduces the scope of primary productivity, and the importance of microbial productivity is therefore enhanced (Shine, Martin, Bennett and Marjoram, 1993).

Investigations
The balance between algae and bacteria, together with nutrient and carbon flow, should soon become clear as the Project enters the last of three years of sampling on behalf of the University of Lancaster's plankton survey, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (N.E.R.C.) (see Appendix).

In addition to the above acoustic studies, the pelagic fish are described by Shine, Kubecka, Martin and Duncan (1993) and Martin and Shine (1993).

Further efforts will be made to explore links between vertical migration and predator-prey relationships in the fish and zooplankton.  The components of the scattering layer also need to be further resolved, and the behaviour of chironomid pupae examined.

Acknowledgements

The work described in this paper was made possible by the enthusiasm of the volunteer members of the Loch Ness and Morar Project over the last three years.  Particular thanks are due to the following, who have given considerable time in staff roles during the field-work:  Miss S. Bennett, Mrs E. Gallagher, Mr. K. Hawley, Mr. B. Herring, Miss R.S. Marjoram, Mr. James Reid, Mr. P. Rimmer, Mr. J. Vallette, and Mr. K. Wilson.

Notes

Note 1

The 200 m depth of the loch has been exploited in trials of a variety of marine equipment, including Remote Operated Vehicles (R.O.V.s).  Conversely, water of this depth demands equipment with marine capabilities, such as underwater television and cameras; marine sonars have also been brought in for hydrography and acoustic fish estimates.  It has also been possible to use large hull-mounted units, as vessels are able to enter the loch via the Caledonian Canal.

Note 2

Institute of Fisheries Management, Greater London and South-East Branch.  Branch Meeting, King's College, London, 3rd March 1992.

Paper read.  The Fish and Other Fauna of Loch Ness.  By Annie Duncan and J. Kubecka (Department of Biology, Royal Holloway University of London) and D.S. Martin and A.J. Shine (Loch Ness and Morar Project).

Note 3

Societas Internationalis Limnologae Theoreticae et Applicatatae.  XXV International Congress, University of Barcelona, Spain, 21st-27th August 1992.

Poster paper.  Longitudinal and Vertical Patterns of Pelagic Fish Distribution in Loch Ness: Acoustic Sizes and Numbers.  By Annie Duncan and J. Kubecka (Department of Biology, Royal Holloway University of London) and A.J. Butterworth (National Rivers Authority, Thames Region).

Poster papers.  Studies of the Plankton of Loch Ness.  By R.I. Jones, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, M. Walton and Judith M. Young (Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Lancaster), and A.E. Bailey-Watts (Institute of Freshwater Ecology, Penicuick, Midlothian).

1) Phytoplankton.  By Judith M. Young, R.I. Jones, and A.E. Bailey-Watts.

2) The Microbial Loop.  By Johanna Laybourn-Parry and M. Walton.

3) Rotifers.  By Alison Fulcher.

Later published as abstracts: 1 - Young, Jones and Bailey-Watts (1993); 2 - Laybourn-Parry and Walton (1993); 3 - Fulcher (1993).

Note 4

British Ecological Society.  Winter meeting and A.G.M., University of Lancaster, 15th-17th December 1992.

Paper read.  Functional Aspects of the Microbial Plankton in Loch Ness.  By M. Walton and Johanna Laybourn-Parry (Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Lancester).

Paper read.  Bioassay Studies of Loch Ness Phytoplankton.  By R.I. Jones and Anne Hartley (Institute of Environmental and Biological  Sciences, University of Lancaster).

Paper read.  Dual-beam Echo-sounding for Fish in Loch Ness.  By Annie Duncan and J. Kubecka (Department of Biology, Royal Holloway University of London).

Paper read.  Picophytoplankton of Loch Ness, a Deep Oligotrophic Lake.  By Judith M. Young and R.I. Jones (Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Lancaster.

Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Lancaster.

Poster papers: Studies of the Plankton of Loch Ness.

1) Phytoplankton.  By Judith M. Young and R.I. Jones.

2) The Microbial Loop.  By Johanna Laybourn-Parry and M. Walton.

3) Rotifers.  By Alison Fulcher.

4) Crustacean Zooplankton.  By U. Jayakodi.

Later published as abstracts: 1 - Young, Jones and Bailey-Watts (1993); 2 - Laybourn-Parry and Walton (1993); 3 - Fulcher (1993).

Poster paper.  The Recent History of Loch Ness.  By Vivienne Jones and N. Rose (Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London) and P.G. Appleby (University of Liverpool).

Poster paper.  Longitudinal and Vertical Patterns of Pelagic Fish Distribution in Loch Ness: Acoustic sizes and Numbers.  By Annie Duncan and J. Kubecka (Department of Biology, Royal Holloway University of London) and A.J. Butterworth (National Rivers Authority, Thames Region).

Poster paper.  Profundal Benthos in Loch Ness.  By D.S. Martin and A.J. Shine (Loch Ness and Morar Project) and Annie Duncan (Department of Biology, Royal Holloway University of London).

Poster paper.  Loch Ness Project, Reviews and Previews.  By A.J. Shine (Loch Ness and Morar Project).

Poster paper.  Loch Ness Undercurrents 1 and 2.  By A.J. Shine (Loch Ness and Morar Project).

Note 5

Scottish Freshwater Group.  50th Meeting, University of Stirling, 2nd-3rd February 1993.

Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Lancaster.

Poster papers:  Studies of the Plankton of Loch Ness.

1) Phytoplankton.  By Judith M. Young and R.I. Jones.

2) The Microbial Loop.  By Johanna Laybourn-Parry and M. Walton.

3) Rotifers.  By Alison Fulcher.

4) Crustacean Zooplankton.  By U. Jayakodi.

Later published as abstracts: 1 - Young, Jones and Bailey-Watts (1993); 2 - Laybourn-Parry and Walton (1993); 3 - Fulcher (1993).

Poster paper.  The Recent History of Loch Ness.  By Vivienne Jones and N. Rose (Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London) and P.G. Appleby (University of Liverpool).

Poster paper.  Application of Hydroacoustics to Scottish Freshwaters: Case Studies in Loch Ness and Orkney Lochs.  By Annie Duncan and J. Kubecka (Department of Biology, Royal Holloway University of London) and A.J. Butterworth and W. Duncan (National Rivers Authority, Thames Region).

Poster paper.  Profundal Benthos in Loch Ness.  By D.S. Martin and A.J. Shine (Loch Ness and Morar Project) and Annie Duncan (Department of Biology, Royal Holloway University of London).

Poster paper.  Loch Ness Project, Reviews and Previews.  By A.J. Shine (Loch Ness and Morar Project).

Poster paper.  Loch Ness Undercurrents 1 and 2.  By A.J. Shine (Loch Ness and Morar Project).

Note 6

London Freshwater Group.  50th Meeting, Linnean Society, London, 19th March 1993.

Paper read.  The Biology of Loch Ness.  By D.S. Martin (Loch Ness and Morar Project).

Appendix

Research work carried out at Loch Ness towards the degrees of B.Sc., M.Sc., M.Phil. or Ph.D. include the following:

Baker, D.L.  (1993).  A Palaeolimnological Reconstruction of the Recent History of the Catchment of a Scottish Loch.  B.Sc. Dissertation, University of Wolverhampton.

Bennett, S.  (1993).  Patterns and Processes of Sedimentation in Loch Ness.  B.Sc. Dissertation, University of Staffordshire.

Bracewell, C.E.  (1993).  A Geochemical Study of Natural and Pollutant Compounds in Loch Ness, Scotland.  M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Fulcher, A.S.  (Ongoing).  Rotifers of Loch Ness and the Cumbrian Lakes.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Lancaster.

Griffiths, H.I.  (Ongoing).  Applications of Freshwater Ostracods in the Study of Late Quaternary Palaeoenvironments of North Western Europe.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cardiff.

Hartley, A.  (1993).  Plankton Bioassay of Loch Ness Water.  B.Sc. Dissertation, University of Lancaster. *

Jayakodi, U.  (Ongoing).  The Ecology of Zooplankton in Loch Ness.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Lancaster. *

Jenkins, P.H.  (Ongoing).  Comparative Effects of Environmental Change, Human Impact and Climatic Change on a Large and Small Lake.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wolverhampton.

Mansfield, C.A.  (1992).  A Study of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Compounds in Sediment Cores from Loch Ness, Scotland.  M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Marjoram, R.S.  (1993).  An Investigation of the Identification and Behaviour of an Acoustic Scattering Layer in Loch Ness, Scotland.  B.Sc. Dissertation, Worcester College of Higher Education.

Meacham, N.J.  (1993).  The Fecundity and Associated Ecological Factors of the Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus, and Brown Trout, Salmo trutta, in Loch Ness, Scotland.  B.Sc. Dissertation, University of Hull.

Miller, K.C.  (1993).  A Study of Sedimentary Markers within the Lacustrine Environment.  B.Sc. Dissertation, University of Edinburgh.

Millward, D.  (1992).  A Palynological Sedimentation Study of a Core from the South Basin of Loch Ness.  B.Sc. Dissertation, University of Hull.

Picots, A.  (Ongoing).  Studies of Bacterioplankton in Loch Ness, plus Limiting Factors.  M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Lancaster.

Walton, M.  (Ongoing).  The Population Dynamics of Bacteria and Flagellated Protozoa in Loch Ness.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Lancaster. *

Wheeler, A.  (Ongoing).  Structure, Origin and Periodicity of Laminations in Holocene Sediment Cores from Loch Ness, Scottish Highlands.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wolverhampton.

Young, J.M.  (Ongoing).  Picoplankton in Loch Ness.  M.Phil. Dissertation, University of Lancaster. *

  *   Research carried out under the auspices of the University of Lancaster's multi-disciplinary plankton study - Plankton Community Dynamics of a Large Oligotrophic Freshwater System (Loch Ness) - funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (N.E.R.C.).

References

Anon.  (1933).  Strange spectacle on Loch Ness.  What was it?  (From a correspondent).  Inverness Courier, 2nd May 1933.

Baker, P.F.  (1962).  Cambridge University Loch Ness Expedition Report.  Cambridge.

Baker, P.F. and Westwood, M.  (1960).  Underwater detective work.  Scotsman, 14th September 1960.

Bennett S. and Shine, A.J.  (1993).  Review of current work on Loch Ness sediment cores.  Scottish Naturalist, 105: 55-63.

Campbell, E.M. and Solomon, D.  (1972).  The Search for Morag.  London:  Tom Stacey.

Fulcher, A.S.  (1993).  Studies of the plankton of Loch Ness, Scotland.  3.  Rotifers.  Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, 25: 460.

Griffiths, H.I. and Martin, D.S.  (1993).  The spatial distribution of benthic ostracods in the profundal zone of Loch Ness.  Scottish Naturalist, 105: 137-147.

Jenkins, P.H.  (1993a).  Loch Ness sediments:  a preliminary report.  Scottish Naturalist, 105: 65-86.

Jenkins, P.H.  (1993b).  Results of a water chemistry study of Loch Ness.  Scottish Naturalist, 105: 45-54.

Kubecka, J., Duncan, A. and Butterworth, A.J.  (1993).  Large and small organisms detected in the open waters of Loch Ness by dual-beam acoustics.  Scottish Naturalist, 105: 175-193.

Laybourn-Parry, J.E.M. and Walton, M.C.  (1993).  Studies of the plankton of Loch Ness, Scotland.  2. The microbial loop.  Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, 25: 459.

Mackal, R.P.  (1976).  The Monsters of Loch Ness.  London: Macdonald and Jane's.

Maitland, P.S. (Ed.) (1981).  The Ecology of Scotland's Largest Lochs: Lomond, Awe, Ness, Morar and Shiel.  Monographiae Biologicae, Vol. 44.  The Hague: Junk.

Martin, D.S., Shine, A.J. and Duncan, A.  (1993).  The profundal fauna of Loch Ness and Loch Morar.  Scottish Naturalist, 105: 113-136.

Mortimer, C.H.  (1952).  Water movements in lakes during summer stratification.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 236: 355-404.

Mortimer, C.H.  (1955).  Some effects of the Earth's rotation on water movement in stratified lakes.  Proceedngs of the International Association of Applied Limnology, 12: 66-77

Murray, J. and Pullar, L.  (Eds.) (1903-08).  Bathymetrical survey of the fresh-water lochs of Scotland.  Geographical Journal, Vols. 22-31.  A series of papers by various contributors, preliminary to the six-volume publication of 1910.

Murray, J. and Pullar, L.  (Eds.)  (1910).  Bathymetrical Survey of the Scottish Fresh-Water Lochs.  Vols. 1-6.  Edinburgh: Challenger Office.

Rines, R.H.  (1988).  A review of research contributions at Loch Ness by the Academy of Applied Science.  Scottish Naturalist, 100: 201-208.

Rines, R.H., Wyckoff, C.W., Edgerton, H.E. and Klein, M.  (1976).  Search for the Loch Ness Monster.  Technology Review, March/April 1976: 25-40.

Sanders, G. , Jones, K.C. and Shine, A.J.  (1993).  The use of a sediment core to reconstruct the historical input of contaminants to Loch Ness: PCBs and PAHs.  Scottish Naturalist, 105: 87-111.

Scott, P. and Rines, R.H.  (1975).  Naming the Loch Ness Monster.  Nature, 258:  466-468.

Shine, A.J., Kubecka, J., Martin, D.S. and Duncan, A.  (1993).  Fish habitats in Loch Ness.  Scottish Naturalist, 105:  237-255.

Shine, A.J. and Martin, D.S.  (1988).  Loch Ness habitats observed by sonar and underwater television.  Scottish Naturalist, 100: 111-199.

Shine, A.J., Martin, D.S., Bennett, S. and Marjoram, R.S.  (1993).  Allochthonous organic inputs as an explanation of spatial biomass gradients observed in the pelagic and profundal zones of Loch Ness.  Scottish Naturalist, 105: 257-269.

Shine, A.J., Martin, D.S. and Marjoram, R.S.  (1993).  Spatial distribution and diurnal migration of the pelagic fish and zooplankton in Loch Ness.  Scottish Naturalist, 105: 195-235.

Smith, B.D., Maitland, P.S., Young, M.R. and Carr, M.J.  (1981).  The littoral zoobenthos.  In: The Ecology of Scotland's Largest Lochs:  Lomond, Awe, Ness, Morar and Shiel.  (Ed. P.S. Maitland).  Monographie Biologicae, 44: 155-203.  The Hague: Junk.

Thorpe, S.A.  (1974).  Evidence of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows in Loch Ness.  Limnology and Oceanography, 19: 973-976.

Thorpe, S.A.  (1988).  "... light on obscure oceanographical problems"; an historical review of studies of the physics of Loch Ness.  Scottish Naturalist, 100: 17-33.

Thorpe, S.A., Hall, A. and Crofts, I.  (1972).  The internal surge in Loch Ness.  Nature, 237: 96-98.

Watson, E.R.  (1904).  Movements of the waters of Loch Ness, as indicated by temperature observations.  Geographical Journal, 24: 430-437.

Wedderburn, E.M.  (1907a).  The temperature of the fresh-water lochs of Scotland, with special reference to Loch Ness.  With appendix containing observations made in Loch Ness by members of the Scottish Lake Survey.  Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 45: 407-489.

Wedderburn, E.M.  (1907b).  An experimental investigation of the temperature changes occurring in fresh-water lochs.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 28: 2-20.

Wedderburn, E.M.  (1911).  Some analogies between lakes and oceans.  Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie, 4: 55-64.

Wedderburn, E.M.  (1912).  Temperature observations in Loch Earn.  With a further contribution to the hydrodynamical theory of the temperature seiche.  Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 48: 629-695.

Wedderburn, E.M. and Watson, W.  (1909).  Observations with a current meter in Loch Ness.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 29: 619-647.

Witchell, N.  (1975).  The Loch Ness Story.  London: Penguin Books.  Revised edition (1989).  London: Corgi Books.

Young, I. and Shine, A.J.  (1993).  Loch Ness bathymetric and seismic survey, December 1991.  Scottish Naturalist, 105: 23-43.

Young, J.M., Jones, R.I. and Bailey-Watts, A.E.  (1993).  Studies of the plankton of Loch Ness, Scotland. 1. Phytoplankton. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, 25: 458.

Received July 1993

Mr. Adrian J. Shine, Loch Ness and Morar Project,

Loch Ness Centre, DRUMNADROCHIT, Inverness-shire IV3 6TU.

Mr. John Minshull, Loch Ness and Morar Project,

Loch Ness Centre, DRUMNADROCHIT, Inverness-shire IV3 6TU.

Mrs Maralyn Shine, Loch Ness and Morar Project,

Loch Ness Centre, DRUMNADROCHIT, Inverness-shire IV3 6TU.

 

 

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